Learning and Instruction is mostly a complex process. This assumption is more and more reflected by measures and methods. The first two studies in this issue demonstrate that with elegant methods the process over time can disentangle individual learning processes. The third study shows a simple method to avoid assessment errors in judging learning outcomes.

Schick et al. used the Q-methodology for sorting questions in a longitudinal study. They measured the attitude towards patient communication of senior medical students across one year. The resulting attitude profiles reflect different developmental patterns over time. 

Davis & Hadwin introduced a diary tool for self-regulated learning for university students. They differentiated the individual regulation processes over time and show that the students who always attained their goals end up with higher personal well-being. The results from the process mining were visualized with two videos: video 1 and video 2

Jansen et al. explored the influence of spelling errors on the overall assessment of second-language student essays. They identified a halo effect that spelling errors negatively bias processing of the content. Prompting this fact in a second study could reduce these halo effects.