Challenges and Support for Pre-service Teachers’ Virtual Teaching and Practicums: Implications for Bahamian Educational Systems




Teacher education, Online instruction, Virtual teaching, Internet videoconferencing


Teacher education programmes, nationally and internationally, are unique both at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Specifically, in the Bahamian educational system, they are designed to produce certified K-12 teachers who demonstrate academic and professional excellence in a variety of subject areas. These programmes incorporate a theoretical component and a culminating practical experience that requires pre-service teachers to be evaluated on the quality of their teaching. Normally the culminating experience has been completed in the traditional face-to-face setting. However, the onset of COVID-19 resulted in an immediate imposition of a virtual teaching practicum. This integrated literature review explores the challenges pre-service teachers faced and the support systems they needed during a virtual teaching practicum and addresses implications for practice in a Bahamian setting.

Author Biographies

Yvonne Hunter-Johnson, Southern Illinois University (Carbondale)

Associate Professor within Department of Workforce Education and Development

Norrisa Newton, School of Education- University of The Bahamas

Assistant Professor - School of Education- University of The Bahamas

Beulah Gardiner-Farquharson, University of The Bahamas

Full Professor - School of Education- University of The Bahamas

Janice Munnings, School of Education- University of The Bahamas

Full Professor - School of Education- University of The Bahamas

Neresa Bandelier, School of Education- University of The Bahamas

Associate Professor - School of Education- University of The Bahamas

Faith Butler, School of Education- University of The Bahamas

Full Professor - School of Education- University of The Bahamas

Tarah McDonald, School of Education- University of The Bahamas

Assistant Professor - School of Education- University of The Bahamas

Natasha Swann, School of Education- University of The Bahamas

Assistant Professor - School of Education- University of The Bahamas

Raquel Edgecombe, School of Education- University of The Bahamas

Associate Professor - School of Education- University of The Bahamas


Arenson, K. (1998, October 7). NYU sees profit in virtual classes. New York Times.


Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Prentice Hall.

Bergstrand, K., & Savage, S. V. (2013). The chalkboard versus the avatar: Comparing the effectiveness of online and in-class courses. Teaching Sociology, 41(3), 294–306.

Brinia, V., & Psoni, P. (2021). Online teaching practicum during COVID-19: The case of a teacher education program in Greece. Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education.

Burgess, S. B., & Sievertsen, H. H. (2020, April 1). Schools, skills, and learning: The impact of COVID-19 on education. VOX EU.

Carroll, A., Forlin, C., & Jobling, A. (2003). The impact of teacher training in special education on the attitudes of Australian preservice general educators towards people with disabilities. Teacher Education Quarterly, 30(3), 65–79.

Castle, S. R., & McGuire, C. J. (2010). An analysis of student self-assessment of online, blended, and face-to-face learning environments: Implications for sustainable education delivery. International Education Studies, 3(3), 36–40.

Cooper, R., Warren, L., Hogan-Chapman, A., & Mills, L. (2018, October). Pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy toward online teaching. In E-learn: World conference on e-learning in corporate, government, healthcare, and higher education (pp. 287–292). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

Dawson, K., & Norris, A. (2000). SIGTE Award 2000: Preservice teachers’ experiences in a K—12/university technology-based field initiative: Benefits, facilitators, constraints, and implications for teacher educators. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 17(1), 4–12.

Dorner, H., & Kumar, S. (2016). Online collaborative mentoring for technology integration in pre-service teacher education. TechTrends, 60(1), 48–55.

Duncan, H. E., & Barnett, J. (2009). Learning to teach online: What works for pre-service teachers. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 40(3), 357–376.

Ersin, P., Atay, D., & Mede, E. (2020). Boosting preservice teachers’ competence and online teaching readiness through e-practicum during the COVID-19 outbreak. International Journal of TESOL Studies, 2(2), 112-124.

Farmer, H. & Ramsdale, J. (2016). Teaching competencies for the online environment. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology / La revue canadienne de l’apprentissage et de la technologie, 42(3), 1-17.

Gallup, J. L., Ray, B., & Bennett, C. A. (2021). A roadmap for development, implementation, and evaluation of virtual practicums in teacher education: Virtual practicums amidst a global crisis. In L. Kyei-Blankson, J. Blankson, & E. Ntuli (Eds.), Handbook of research on inequities in online education during global crises (pp. 163–182). IGI Global.

Gurley, L. E. (2018). Educators' preparation to teach, perceived teaching presence, and perceived teaching presence behaviors in blended and online learning environments. Online Learning, 22(2), 197–220.

Han, I., Shin, W. S., & Ko, Y. (2017). The effect of student teaching experience and teacher beliefs on pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy and intention to use technology in teaching. Teachers and Teaching, 23(7), 829–842.

Harting, K., & Erthal, M. J. (2005). History of distance education. Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal, 23(1), 35–44.


He, Y. (2014). Universal design for learning in an online teacher education course: Enhancing learners’ confidence to teach online. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 10(2), 283-298.

Hollins, E. R., & Warner, C. K. (2021). Rethinking teacher preparation program design. Routledge.

Kadir, F. A., & Aziz, A. A. (2021). Teaching practicum during COVID-19 pandemic: A review of the challenges and opportunities of pre-service teachers. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 11(4), 1175–1183.

Kennedy, K., & Archambault, L. (2012). Offering preservice teachers field experiences in K-12 online learning: A national survey of teacher education programs. Journal of Teacher Education, 63(3), 185–200.

Kentnor, H. E. (2015). Distance education and the evolution of online learning in the United States. Curriculum and Teaching Dialogue, 17(1), 21–34.

Krach, S. K., Paskiewicz, T. L., & Monk, M. M. (2020). Testing our children when the world shuts down: Analyzing recommendations for adapted tele-assessment during COVID-19. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 38(8), 923–941.


Lathifah, Z. K., Helmanto, F., & Maryani, N. (2020). The practice of effective classroom management in COVID-19 time. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 29(7), 3263–3271.

Manegre, M., & Sabiri, K. A. (2020). Online language learning using virtual classrooms: An analysis of teacher perceptions. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 1–16.

McAllister, L., & Graham, C. (2016). An analysis of the curriculum requirements for K-12 online teaching endorsements in the US. Journal of Online Learning Research, 2(3), 247–282.

McLoughlin, C., & Lee, M. J. (2010). Personalised and self-regulated learning in the Web 2.0 era: International exemplars of innovative pedagogy using social software. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26(1), 28-43.

Nacak, A., Bağlama, B., & Demir, B. (2020). Teacher candidate views on the use of YouTube for educational purposes. Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, 10(2), e202003.

Newton, N. G. (2018). Examining attrition among Bahamian special education teachers and implications for special education reform [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Walden University.

Ogbonnaya, U. I., Awoniyi, F. C., & Matabane, M. E. (2020). Move to online learning during COVID-19 lockdown: Pre-service teachers’ experiences in Ghana. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 19(10), 286–303.

Samu, B. (2020). Teaching practice in pre-service language teacher education: Challenges of the transition from face-to-face to online lessons [Paper presentation]. The Future of Education, 10th International Conference, (pp. 602-608).

Scull, J., Phillips, M., Sharma, U., & Garnier, K. (2020). Innovations in teacher education at the time of COVID-19: An Australian perspective. Journal of Education for Teaching, 46(4), 497–506.

Smithers, A., & Bungey, M. (2017). The good teacher training guide, 2017. Centre for Education and Employment Research, University of Buckingham.

Stolba, A., & Kay, R. (2021). Acquiring digital proficiency in teacher education. Journal of Educational Informatics, 2(2), 22–25.

Teng, M. F. (2017). Emotional development and construction of teacher identity: Narrative interactions about the pre-service teachers' practicum experiences. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 42(11), 117–134.

Rolle, L. (2020, September 11). Donation to pay for 600 tablet devices for students. The Tribune.

Thompson, A. D., Schmidt, D. A., & Davis, N. E. (2003). Technology collaboratives for simultaneous renewal in teacher education. Educational Technology Research and Development, 51(1), 73–89.

Torraco, R. J. (2005). Writing integrative literature reviews: Guidelines and examples. Human Resource Development Review, 4(3), 356–367.

Vrasida, C., & McIsaac, M. S. (2001). Integrating technology into teaching and teacher education: Implications for policy and curriculum reform. Educational Media International, 38(2-3), 127-132.

Yang, H., Yang, M., Batt, L., Xie, X. You, E., & Goff, P. (2021). A new evaluation approach for teacher preparation programs using labor market competitiveness of teacher applicants, Teaching and Teacher Education, 104, 103368.

Yuan, R., & Lee, I. (2016). ‘I need to be strong and competent’: A narrative inquiry of a student teacher’s emotions and identities in teaching practicum. Teachers and Teaching, 22(7), 1–23.






Literature Reviews