Art Music by Caribbean Composers: Trinidad and Tobago




Classical music, Composers,


Trinidad and Tobago is most famous for its indigenous musical traditions, calypso and soca and is the birthplace of the steel pan.

Author Biographies

Christine Gangelhoff, The College of The Bahamas

Assistant Professor Department of Music School of Communications and Creative Arts

Cathleen LeGrand, Royal Thimphu College



Bilby, K., & Neely, D. (2009). The English-speaking Caribbean: Re-embodying the colonial ballroom. In P. Manuel (Ed.), Creolizing contradance in the Caribbean (pp. 231-270). Temple University Press.

Brown, E. D. (1990). Carnival, calypso, and steelband in Trinidad. The Black Perspective in Music, 18(1/2), 81-100.

Cariclassical. (2013, May 27). Le Gendre discusses “Riff” [videofile].

Dudley, S. (2001). Ray Holman and the changing role of the steelband, 1957-72. Latin American Music Review, 22(2), 183-198.

Dudley, S. (2005). Trinidad and Tobago. In Continuum encyclopedia of popular music of the world: Locations.

Dudley, S. (2013). Steel band. In Grove music online. Oxford University Press.

Manuel, P. (2008). East Indians in Trinidad, Guyana and Suriname. In M. Kuss (Ed.), Music in Latin America and the Caribbean: An encyclopedic history (pp. 417-424). University of Texas Press.

McDaniel, L. (1998). Trinidad and Tobago. In D. A. Olsen & D. E. Sheehy (Eds.), Garland encyclopedia of world music, volume 2: South America, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean (pp. 952-966). Routledge.

Munro, M. (2005). Trinidad. In France and the Americas: Culture, politics, and history.

Remy, J. (2011, March). Pan in the 21st century: Steelpan repertoire in the professional market. Percussive Notes, 49(2), 4-7.






Caribbean Art Music Bibliography