Canadian Journal of Education/Revue canadienne de l'éducation https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce <p><strong>CANADA'S PREMIER JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH | LA PRINCIPALE REVUE CANADIENNE AXÉE SUR LA RECHERCHE EN ÉDUCATION <br></strong></p> Canadian Society for the Study of Education / Société canadienne pour l'étude de l'éducation en-US Canadian Journal of Education/Revue canadienne de l'éducation 0380-2361 <p>The Canadian Journal of Education follows Creative Commons Licencing <strong>CC BY-NC-ND. </strong>For permission to reprint all or part of an article, please contact the Managing Editor.</p> Éditorial https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/5227 Carole Fleuret Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 44 2 i ii Instrumentation numérique de la rédaction incrémentale : leçons tirées de la mise à l’épreuve du carnet numérique de l’élève chercheur https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/4445 <p>We studied how the introduction of the CNEC, a learning environment whose function is to foster iterative writing, affected the interactions between pupils and teachers in a sample of elementary and middle schools. Based on class observations and focus groups and through the lens of activity theory, we study the difficulties associated with the implementation of iterative writing, before and after the introduction of the CNEC. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that digital artifacts can improve the regulation of class activity in the context of inquiry-learning, compared to their paper equivalents. Parallelly, our results suggested that the perception students had of their own mistakes seems to change in a context of iterative writing, since the remarks of the teacher on such mistakes are less considered as a punishment. Observations also suggested that new contradictions could arise of the will of teachers to use both paper-based and digital artifacts to perform iterative writing, and due to the increased time the formulation of feedbacks requires.</p> <p>Keywords: iterative writing, evaluation, virtual learning environment</p> Matthieu Cisel Charlotte Barbier Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 44 2 277 307 Financial Literacy Education in Ontario: An Exploratory Study of Elementary Teachers’ Perceptions, Attitudes, and Practices https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/4249 <p>Politicians are pushing school boards to do more to ensure students leave school with the financial literacy skills they will need to navigate an increasingly complex financial marketplace. Financial literacy education must start early to achieve this goal, yet there has been very little Canadian research on financial literacy education at the elementary level. This exploratory study used an anonymous, online survey to gain a preliminary understanding of full-time Ontario elementary teachers’ perceptions, attitudes, and practices with respect to financial literacy education. Respondents overwhelmingly favour teaching financial literacy in elementary school. Almost half of respondents currently incorporate financial literacy into their classroom practice. These teachers rely primarily on free, online resources. With respect to barriers to teaching financial literacy, respondents cited the lack of an appropriate curriculum and lack of support from schools and school boards. Respondents identified professional development as the main type of support they would like to see schools and school boards provide to support them in teaching financial literacy going forward.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: financial literacy, financial education, elementary teachers</p> Gail E Henderson Pamela Beach Andrew Coombs Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 44 2 308 336 Lien entre l’engagement des enfants âgés de 4-5 ans dans leurs apprentissages et des profils de la qualité des interactions en centre de la petite enfance https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/4623 <p>This article aims to identify profiles of the quality of interactions in childcare centres and to relate them to the engagement of children aged 4-5 years in their learning. The quality of the interactions was observed in 15 groups, using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS). Then, semi-structured interviews were carried out with the early childhood educators (N = 15). The observation of children’s engagement in their learning was carried out with 108 children (n = 54 girls), using the Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS). The results reveal three profiles of the quality of interactions, one of which stands out in terms of instructional support. However, none of these profiles is associated with children’s engagement in their learning. </p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: engagement, learning, Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System, inCLASS, preschool children, childcare centres, quality of interactions, Classroom Assessment Scoring System, CLASS</p> Caroline Bouchard Stéphanie Duval Anne-Sophie Parent Christelle Robert-Mazaye Nathalie Bigras Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 44 2 337 370 Reframing Parental Involvement as Social Engagement: A Study of Recently Arrived Arabic-Speaking Refugee Parents’ Understandings of Involvement in Their Children’s Education https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/4439 <p>The involvement of refugee parents in their children’s education is crucial for academic success and social integration. However, school personnel often seem to struggle to find approaches that will increase recently arrived refugee parents’ involvement with the school. While refugee parents are not a homogenous group, many face uniquely similar and intersecting challenges. Using a qualitative research approach, specifically semi-structured interviews, this study examines the perceptions of one group of Arabic-speaking, recently arrived refugee parents’ perceptions of being and becoming involved in their children’s education after their arrival in Canada. The findings suggest the following factors act as barriers to their involvement: (1) limited language proficiency, (2) competing basic needs, (3) lack of homework, (4) teachers’ limited cross-cultural and interreligious understanding, and (5) sexual health education being a contested shared space. While the findings illuminate what some recently arrived refugee parents regard as barriers, the discussion challenges educational leaders and policy makers to critically question the dominant, normative model of parental involvement that is employed and recommends they reframe their conceptions of parental involvement as social engagement with a school community. Such a reframing may better support recently arrived refugee parents’ integration into their new home country.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: parental involvement, recently arrived refugees, integration</p> Jerome Cranston Shauna Labman Stephanie Crook Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 44 2 371 404 Les retombées de la participation d’enseignantes du primaire à un projet de recherche-action au sujet de la mise en œuvre de pratiques différenciées d’enseignement de l’écriture sur leur développement professionnel https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/4681 <p>Carried out with six elementary school teachers, this action research aimed to co-construct and implement differentiated pedagogical practices in writing to students from disadvantaged backgrounds. This text presents the results of the training component (Guay &amp; Prud’homme, 2018) of this action research and documents the effects of the participation of teachers in this study on their professional development. The results show achievements in all dimensions of the Clarke and Hollingsworth (2002) model. The analysis of the cost/benefit ratio and the sustainability of the achievements puts into perspective the conclusion on the effectiveness of this type of professional development device.</p> <p><br>Keywords: differentiated instruction, action research, writing teaching, professional development, relationship to writing</p> Mirela Moldoveanu France Dubé Marie-Hélène Giguère Naomi Grenier Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 44 2 405 433 The Case for Commemoration Controversies in Canadian History Education https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/4451 <p>Commemorations are events or actions that honour and memorialize significant events, people, and groups from the past. In recent years there have been numerous contentious debates about commemorations of historical events and people in countries around the world, including Canada. In this article I argue that commemoration controversies should be an essential part of teaching and learning history in K–12 schools because they have the potential to be meaningful and relevant for students, they address civic education competencies central to history and social studies curricula in Canada, and they provide rich opportunities for advancing students’ historical consciousness and historical thinking. In the final section of the article I describe how six second-order historical thinking concepts can be used to invite students to think historically about commemorations.</p> <p><br>Keywords: historical commemorations, public history, history teaching and learning, citizenship education, history education, historical consciousness, historical thinking, social studies education</p> Lindsay Gibson Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 44 2 434 465 Élaboration et validation de l’Échelle de perception d’un centre d’aide en français du postsecondaire (ÉPCAFP) https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/4761 <p>Post-secondary teachers find that many students who could benefit from the support of their institution’s academic skills centres to succeed in their courses do not show up. Ways to motivate students to use these services are in development and will need to be evaluated. This article presents the process for developing and validating the Échelle de perception d’un centre d’aide en français du postsecondaire (ÉPCAFP). The instrument is composed of three subscales (Interest, Utility and Controllability) and has been evaluated with 1,324 college students from four colleges in Quebec. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyzes revealed a structure that clearly distinguishes the 10 items of the scale according to the three conceptual dimensions representing the subscales. Moreover, results are satisfactory with regard of internal consistency, discriminant validity as well as criterion-related validity of the instrument. The results of this study are discussed in light to the issue that justified its conduct.</p> <p><br>Keywords: perception, French help centre, motivation, measurement scale, validation</p> Isabelle Cabot Stéphanie Facchin Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 44 2 466 495 A Seasonal Comparison of the Effectiveness of Parent Engagement on Student Literacy Achievement https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/4551 <p>Parent engagement is often promoted as a remedy for reducing achievement gaps between students from high socio-economic and low socio-economic backgrounds. However, researchers have found mixed results when examining parent engagement and student outcomes. Drawing on a study investigating the effectiveness of summer literacy camps offered by schools in Ontario, I compare the influence of parent engagement on two outcomes: (1) spring snapshot of cumulative learning, and (2) summer literacy growth/loss. In considering summer learning in regression analysis, I aim to investigate the effect of parent engagement without the influence of schools during the academic year. Out of 14 parent engagement measures, I find only three (parents’ aspirations, home resources, discussions of school with children) are positive predictors of spring literacy outcomes and that none predict summer literacy growth/loss. Family socio-economic status remains a powerful predictor of achievement for both outcomes. I interpret my findings within three proposed mechanisms of parent engagement: cultivation ethic, realist reaction, and expressive logic.</p> <p><br>Keywords: parent engagement, literacy achievement, socio-economic status, inequality, summer learning, summer literacy camp(s)</p> Cathlene Hillier Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 44 2 496 529 Les retraites de rédaction structurées auprès des doctorant[e]s : Quelles conditions favorisent une expérience de rédaction légitime, productive et plaisante? https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/4775 <p>Thesis writing is challenging for many PhD candidates. To support them, structured writing retreats represent a strategy for consideration, although little has been documented on the topic. This article presents results from a mixed-method study (N = 210) combining questionnaires and interviews, aiming to understand the effects of Thesez-vous writing retreats to 1) document benefits of writing retreats, namely encouraging writing, legitimizing writing and ensuring a fulfilling experience, and to 2) identify conditions maximizing these benefits. More broadly, this article conveys the possibility to rethink and reframe thesis writing to create a productive, collective and pleasant experience.</p> <p><br>Keywords: thesis editing, writing retreats, benefits, flow, scientific productivity</p> Émilie Tremblay Wragg Cynthia Vincent Christelle Lison William Gilbert Philippe Valois Sara Mathieu-Chartier Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 44 2 530 558 Effect of Online Modules on Pre-Service Teacher Mental Health Literacy and Efficacy toward Inclusive Practices https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/4601 <p>Mental health literacy (MHL) for pre-service teachers seeks to improve knowledge and help-seeking behaviours and decrease stigma. Increased MHL may also change perceived stress and self-efficacy for inclusive practices. This cohort study evaluates the impact of an online MHL resource for educators, embedded within a mandatory Bachelor of Education (BEd) course, on pre-service teachers’ MHL, perceived stress, and teacher efficacy toward inclusive practices. Seventy-one pre-service teachers completed the course as well as pre- and post-surveys. Results demonstrated significant and substantial improvements on knowledge, help-seeking, and perceived efficacy for inclusive practices. Increased MHL may be an effective approach in meeting the requirements of inclusive education.</p> <p><br>Keywords: mental health literacy, pre-service teachers, inclusive education, self-efficacy</p> Chris Gilham Sherry Neville-MacLean Emily Atkinson Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 44 2 559 599 Recension d’ouvrage : L’analyse fonctionnelle en psychoéducation. Guide théorique et pratique. https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/5233 Louis Cournoyer Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 44 2 iii vi Recension d’ouvrage : Les violences en milieu scolaire : définir, prévenir, agir https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/5235 Jules Rocque Corinne Barrett DeWiele Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 44 2 vii xii Review: It's All Good (Unless it's Not)-Mental Health Tips and Self-Care Strategies for Undergrad Years https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/5229 Erin Creed Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 44 2 xiii xv Review: Joyful Math: Invitations to play and explore in the early childhood classroom https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/5231 Kara Ghobhainn Smith Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 44 2 xvi xvii