Canadian Journal of Education/Revue canadienne de l'éducation <p><strong>CANADA'S PREMIER JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH | LA PRINCIPALE REVUE CANADIENNE AXÉE SUR LA RECHERCHE EN ÉDUCATION <br></strong></p> Canadian Society for the Study of Education / Société canadienne pour l'étude de l'éducation en-US Canadian Journal of Education/Revue canadienne de l'éducation 0380-2361 <p>The Canadian Journal of Education follows Creative Commons Licencing <strong>CC BY-NC-ND. </strong>For permission to reprint all or part of an article, please contact the Managing Editor.</p> Presentation of the special issue regarding African Canadian educational excellence <p>Presentation of the special issue regarding African Canadian educational excellence</p> Johanne Jean-Pierre Beverly-Jean Daniel Tya Collins Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 44 1 CIi CIxii Déconstruire la recherche en éducation en contextes de racialisation : Débusquer le racisme épistémologique <p>Taking into account the International Decade for People of African Descent (2015–2024; ID-PAD) declared by the UN, and through media coverage in 2020 on a global scale of anti-black racist events, the author of this article has chosen to address “the educational success of African Canadians,” the theme of this special issue of the Canadian Journal of Education, by presenting Canada and Quebec as contexts of racialization, and not only as contexts of immigration. The contexts of racialization and, their corollary, eco-systemic, systematic and chronic racism constitute life paths made up of obstacles and ruptures related to the justice, development and recognition of people of African descent, the central themes of the ID-PAD. In Canada, including in French-speaking Quebec, the academic paths of PAD (African-Canadian people), from preschool to university, turn out to be real obstacles that lead them to stumble, to doubt, to fail. Paradoxically, their success is accompanied by self-doubt, self-shame, withdrawal into oneself, conformity to the hegemonic system, and acceptance of their own muzzling; the fight against systemic racism is, thus, often avoided for fear of the consequences. This is miseducation and institutional racism. In this context, how to approach the notion of “educational success” of PAD in Canada and in French-speaking Quebec? Based on critical racial theory, this article proposes a theoretical-conceptual reflection that principally concerns educational research by highlighting epistemological racism as a dimension of systemic racism at work in research and teaching.</p> <p>Keywords: context of racialization, International Decade for People of African Descent, miseducation, iceberg of racism, epistemological racism, emancipatory education, transformative education</p> Gina Thésée Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 44 1 CI1 CI31 La résilience dans le parcours scolaire des jeunes noirs d’origine africaine et caribéenne au Québec <p>Cet article analyse les parcours scolaires d’étudiants québécois noirs d’origine immigrée de l’Afrique subsaharienne et des Caraïbes, ayant en commun de faire partie de groupes racisés, d’être la cible de discrimination et de marginalisation, et d’être à risque de parcours scolaires fragiles. Les résultats obtenus à partir des données longitudinales (N = 8 415) révèlent cependant que ces élèves sont à même de contourner ces obstacles. Bien qu’ils soient plus à risque de difficultés scolaires majeures, de retards dus au redoublement, moins susceptibles de fréquenter un établissement privé ou d’être admis aux programmes enrichis, ces élèves accèdent aux études postsecondaires (collège et université) dans une proportion plutôt comparable à celle de leurs pairs dont les parents sont de souche eurocanadienne. Bien que la situation soit quelque peu inversée en ce qui a trait à l’obtention du diplôme, cet article appuie l’hypothèse de résilience avancée par certains auteurs, comme Krahn et Taylor (2005), à propos de ces étudiants.</p> <p><br>Mots-clés : discrimination et marginalisation, élèves noirs, immigration et immigrés, parcours scolaire et postsecondaire, race et racisme, résilience</p> Pierre Canisius Kamanzi Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 44 1 CI32 CI63 A Call for Change in the Public Education System in Nova Scotia <p>The United Nation’s International Decade for People of African Descent and Nova Scotia’s Ministry of African Nova Scotian Affairs recognize that students of African descent continue to experience inequities. As previous studies indicate, parents of Black learners identified that many educators lack knowledge and experience in understanding students of African descent.This study explored student achievement from the perspective of parents of children of African descent attending public schools in Nova Scotia. Participants included individual interviews and focus groups with parents from rural and urban areas. Based on Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory framework, a thematic analysis of the data was conducted, a dominant storyline related to the families’ experiences in school and subsequent themes emerged: we are treated differently; we don’t feel connected; we know there are challenges: the resistance of parents; and we deal with injustices but persevere. These findings provide recommendations to improve the educational success for Black learners.</p> <p>Keywords: African Canadian, academic achievement and success, Black students, education, schooling challenges, students of African descent</p> Barbara-Ann Hamilton-Hinch Jessie-Lee D. McIsaac Mary-Jane Harkins Sherry Jarvis John C. LeBlanc Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 44 1 CI64 CI92 Low-Income Black Parents Supporting Their Children’s Success through Mentoring Circles <p>This article presents the results of a parent engagement project called “Mentoring Circles.” The project focused on the needs of low-income Black parents who have children enrolled in the Toronto District School Board. Two focus groups, with seven to eight Black parents in each group, were conducted during the summer of 2018. The study drew on theories of community wealth and funds of knowledge (González et al., 2005; Yosso, 2005), Black feminist theory (Collins, 2000; Crenshaw, 1991), and critical race theory (Delgado &amp; Stefancic, 2012). The Black parent narratives served as counter-stories to stereotypes about Black parent disengagement in low-income communities. The low-income Black parents in the study were very engaged in their children’s education and were invested in their academic success. The Black parents strategized to support their children’s education by forming supportive peer mentoring networks and advocating for their children though relationship-building. The findings suggest that mentoring circles could serve as a model for engaging Black parents in the support of their children’s academic success.</p> <p><br>Keywords: Black Canadian children and youth, anti-Black racism, Black parents and students, low socio-economic status, race and ethnicity, social class </p> Alana Butler Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 44 1 CI93 CI117 Editorial Thomas Ryan Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 44 1 i ii Compétences professionnelles et transfert des apprentissages des directions d’établissement en formation universitaire : une exploration franco-manitobaine <p>This research aims to identify the professional skills developed by students having completed the Master of Education program specializing in educational administration at Université de Saint-Boniface and to determine the conditions that facilitate or inhibit the transfer of learning. The research was conducted through a qualitative methodology centred on reflective journals and semi-structured interviews. The results indicate that the professional skill set developed by students within the educational administration program promotes change in their daily practices. Various conditions facilitating the transfer of learning are then identified to better explain this transformation.</p> <p><br>Keywords: educational administration training, professional skills, transfer of learning, educational administration, student academic success</p> Hélène Louise Archambault Gabriel Dumouchel Copyright (c) 2019 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 44 1 1 27 The Differentiated Parent Support Model: Enhancing the Involvement of Parents Who Do Not Speak the School Language <p>Despite 40 years of research indicating that parent involvement is important for student achievement, schools have done little to engage parents across Canada. This study and model recommend strategies to enhance the probability of educational involvement for parents who do not speak the school language. The mixed methods research with surveys (N = 86) and interviews (N = 38) identified the successes and challenges of non-francophone parents with children in French minority-language schools. Parents wanted to help but struggled with French schoolwork and school-community involvement. Parents’ low French proficiency and low school effort to facilitate parent communication and comprehension were some of the barriers that led to a decreased sense of parent autonomy and competency. Policy and practices by educators and parent-groups can encourage involvement and support parents in a French minority-language population as they overcome language and insecurity barriers at home or school. The findings can be generalized to support parent involvement in other multilingual contexts.</p> <p><br>Keywords: parent involvement, minority-language education, French minority language, differentiated parent support model, enhancing parent engagement</p> Mary MacPhee Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 44 1 28 56 Résultats de l’évaluation des effets d’un programme de prévention des agressions à caractère sexuel auprès d’élèves de secondaire III au cours de sa phase pilot <p>This study presents the results of a pilot evaluative study of a new sexual violence prevention program designed for high school students. This evaluation is based on a pre-experimental pre-test/post-test design from a sample of 167 high school youths who participated in the classroom workshops. Results show that following their participation in the program, they improved their knowledge, attitudes, protective and supportive skills, and self-efficacy toward sexual violence. This study identifies positive effects following the participation in this program and helps optimize sexual violence prevention initiatives targeting youth.</p> <p><br>Keywords: sex education, prevention, sexual violence, program evaluation, adolescence</p> Anne-Julie Bouchard Manon Bergeron Martine Hébert Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 44 1 57 88 Zine Production with Queer Youth and Pre-Service Teachers in New Brunswick, Canada: Exploring Connections, Divergences, and Visual Practices <p>Queer, trans, and non-binary youth navigate school spaces punctuated by erasures, silences, and oppression, and resist these experiences through solidarity-building, activism, and art practice. In this article, we seek to centre experiences of school and society as important spheres of inquiry through participatory visual research with queer, trans, and non-binary young people (ages 12 to 17) and pre-service teachers and community educators (ages 22 to 40) in Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada. Using an intersectional lens, we consider how intersecting power structures—gender, race, class, and disability—produce unequal impacts in relation to school and social experiences in New Brunswick. Centring youth agency, we position youth as knowledge producers through participatory visual methods of inquiry, including the making of zines (DIY print productions). With youth and pre-service teachers, through inquiry into existing and desired school and social experiences, we seek to make visual the practice of intergenerational solidarity building through zine production.</p> <p><br>Keywords: participatory visual research, queer, trans and non-binary youth, pre-service teachers, zines</p> Casey Burkholder Katie Hamill Amelia Thorpe Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 44 1 89 115 Effet d’un environnement informatique pour l’apprentissage humain sur la motivation des élèves à faire des mathématiques : caractéristiques des élèves et style de l’enseignant <p>This research deals with the effect of a computer-based learning environment (CBLE), co-designed with teachers, on the variation of students’ motivation to do mathematics, according to their gender, socioeconomic background, initial motivation level, and the teacher’s motivational style, while using this CBLE in the classroom. The main results, obtained from 163 students by using the Vallerand academic motivation scale (Vallerand et al., 1989) pre-test and post-test, highlight the positive effect of the CBLE, according to certain student characteristics, especially for those students who were initially the least motivated to do mathematics and vice versa. This effect is particularly true when the teacher promotes students’ autonomy.</p> <p><br>Keywords: CBLE, mathematics, autonomous motivation, teaching methods</p> Stéphanie Reyssier Stéphane Simonian Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 44 1 116 149 Using Multiple-Mini-Interviews for Admission into Teacher Education <p>This article reports on the validity of the Multiple-Mini-Interview (MMI) method as it was used by a post-degree teacher education program as part of their admissions process to select candidates for entry into the program. The MMI, primarily used for medical school admittance, involves several stations with different interviewers. Comparisons were made between the MMI, other intake variables, and outtake measures. Quantitative analyses also examined possible interviewer, station, gender, and heritage effects. Results support the claim that the MMI can be used to measure dispositions not measured by other intake variables; however, some concerns did emerge.</p> <p><br>Keywords: multiple-mini-interview, teacher education, admission processes, higher education</p> Barbara Salingré Sheryl MacMath Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 44 1 150 173 Évaluation de la qualité de l’environnement physique et psychologique au regard de l’émergence de l’écrit dans des classes d’éducation préscolaire <p>This descriptive quantitative research intended to study the quality of the physical and psychological environment regarding emergent literacy in thirty 4-year preschool education classes observed using the ELLCO tool (Smith et al., 2008). The results show that the participating classes present an environment that is poorly enriched with print and writing materials, and that the support offered in emergent literacy is of quality considered low to basic. This study thus raises the importance of improving the physical environment of 4-year preschool education and the educational practices implemented by teachers to promote children’s emergent literacy.</p> <p><br>Keywords: preschool education, emergent literacy, physical environment quality, psychological environment quality, educational practices, disadvantaged areas</p> Roxane Drainville Annie Charron Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 44 1 174 201 Factors that Influence Canadian Generalist and Physical Education Specialist Elementary School Teachers’ Practices in Physical Education: A Qualitative Study <p>Interviews were conducted with 16 elementary school teachers across Canada (eight generalists and eight physical education [PE] specialists) to explore their experiences when instructing PE. Questions were phrased to encourage exploration of the perspectives of generalists and specialists, with a particular focus on teaching philosophy, barriers faced while instructing PE, facilitators and resources that enhance PE instruction, and the teachers’ self-efficacy when teaching PE. Generalists noted perceived lack of time, inadequate facilities and equipment, insufficient training, lack of knowledge, and low self-efficacy as barriers. Conversely, specialists noted that their advanced training, professional development opportunities, high self-efficacy, and technology use positively supported their teaching practices.</p> <p><br>Keywords: physical education, elementary school, generalist, specialist, physical activity</p> Stephanie Truelove Brianne A. Bruijns Andrew M. Johnson Shauna M. Burke Patricia Tucker Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 44 1 202 231 La justification dans l’enseignement de la lecture : étude exploratoire auprès d’enseignant[e]s de français du 1er cycle du secondaire québécois <p>Justification is required in reading in French class in Quebec’ high schools, in particular to justify interpretation, reaction or appreciation of a text. However, little is known about the uses that teachers make of justification in the context of their teaching of reading. Exploratory research conducted with 12 French teachers has revealed needs to clarify what constitutes justification in French class to equip teachers to make more diversified use of it that is better aligned with students’ learning needs.</p> <p><br>Keywords: justification, reading, teaching method, school activities</p> Marie-Hélène Forget Marie-Christine Beaudry Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 44 1 232 255 Starting from the Same Spot: Exploring Mindfulness Meditation and Student Transitions in the Introductory Health Promotion Classroom <p>The purpose of this research was to explore student perceptions of mindfulness meditation (MM) in an introductory health promotion course, and how the use of MM during class might relate to the transitions experienced by students. Qualitative data collection took place through an online survey and in-person interviews. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four key themes were identified from this research. First, that MM facilitates a sense of peace and calm; second, that MM encourages students to focus; third, MM helps promote student mental health; and finally, MM positively changes the classroom environment. Challenges and recommendations were also described.</p> <p><br>Keywords: mindfulness, meditation, university, transitions</p> Madison MacQuarrie Nicole Blinn Samantha MacLellan Megan Flynn Jessie Meisner Phoebe Owen Becky Spencer Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 44 1 256 276 Recension d’ouvrage : L’organisation du travail des acteurs scolaires : points de repères sur les évolutions au début du XXIe siècle Andréanne Gagné Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 44 1 iii v Book Review: Education policy, neoliberalism, and leadership practice: A critical analysis Takeshi Kajigaya Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 44 1 vi viii Recension d’ouvrage : Les valeurs éducatives au risque du néo-libéralisme Carl Ruest Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 44 1 ix xi Book Review: Suddenly Diverse: How School Districts Manage Race and Inequality Shezadi Khushal Copyright (c) 2021 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 44 1 xii xv