Canadian Journal of Education/Revue canadienne de l'éducation https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce <p><strong>CANADA'S PREMIER JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH | LA PRINCIPALE REVUE CANADIENNE AXÉE SUR LA RECHERCHE EN ÉDUCATION <br></strong></p> Canadian Society for the Study of Education / Société canadienne pour l'étude de l'éducation en-US Canadian Journal of Education/Revue canadienne de l'éducation 0380-2361 <p>The Canadian Journal of Education follows Creative Commons Licencing <strong>CC BY-NC-ND. </strong>For permission to reprint all or part of an article, please contact the Managing Editor.</p> Éditorial https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/4843 Carole Fleuret Copyright (c) 2020 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 43 3 i ii Les effets d’un cours traitant de l’école inclusive sur les croyances de futurs enseignants au regard de leur sentiment de compétence en éducation inclusive https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/4127 <p>The goal of this study, which was of an exploratory nature, was to evaluate the effects of an inclusive school course in which future teachers had the opportunity to systematically examine their own beliefs on the subject of inclusive education. For this purpose, two groups were formed: one experimental group (N = 25), which took the modified course, and one control group (N = 25), which took the same course but without modifications. At the beginning and at the end of the course, the two groups filled out a questionnaire on the subject of their beliefs about inclusive education. The statistical analysis carried out on the total score suggests that the experimental group did not obtain a significantly higher score than the control group did except in the domain of pedagogical competencies and leadership. Also, after having completed the modified course, the future teachers in the experimental group declared themselves to be more competent than those in the control group for the questionnaire items pertaining to seven out of eight indicators from the competence 4 norms of Alberta Education (MEA, 2018). Curiously, the future teachers from both groups felt incompetent with classroom management (indicator 6) whether they followed the modified course or not. These results seem promising, since they would indicate an interesting way of helping future teachers augment their feelings of competence in the area of inclusive education by means of a university course.</p> <p><br><strong>Keywords</strong>: modified school inclusive course, future teachers, beliefs about inclusive education, feelings of competence</p> René Langevin Angélique Laurent Serge Larivée Carole Sénéchal Copyright (c) 2020 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 43 3 607 629 Hitting the Conceptual Knowledge Wall: Pre-Service Teacher Responses to High-Stakes Mathematics Testing Failure https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/4009 <p>The research reported here is part of a larger study and examines the cases of two individuals who were initially unable to achieve the required 60% passing grade on a Mathematics for Teaching Exam at the end of their first enrolment in an intermediate-level mathematics methods course. The exam is a graduation requirement of the teacher education program at a specific university in Ontario. The two individuals reacted in markedly different ways to the news that they had not met the mathematics requirement: one took it as an opportunity to grow and learn the mathematics she was aware she had never learned in her past; the other became angry and hostile, blaming his professor for his lack of success. In this article, we present the contrasts in approach between the cases, and how the responses influenced the participants’ further mathematics learning. As well, the somewhat unexpected impact that these responses had on the subjects’ peers is explored. Finally, we document concerns that were raised from the use of a high-stakes exam as a mandatory graduation requirement and consider reasons for the differing reactions.</p> <p><br><strong>Keywords</strong>: pre-service education, mathematics education, mathematics for teaching, high stakes examination</p> Jennifer Holm Ann Kajander Copyright (c) 2020 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 43 3 630 658 Exploration des liens entre la motivation envers les activités d’orientation et d’information scolaire et professionnelle et l’indécision de carrière des étudiants du collégial https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/4177 <p>Research has shown that the more students carry out activities related to their vocational development for pleasure, the less they will be undecided. Thus, intervening to encourage the motivation of college students towards these activities could constitute a way to remedy their career indecision. The aim of this research is therefore to verify whether the motivation to carry out activities promoting vocational development leads to a decrease in the level of indecision of college students. In this longitudinal research conducted with more than 830 students, the results indicate that it is rather the level of indecision that determines the motivation of the students and not vice versa. Thus, the results suggest relying on intervention strategies with regards to student indecision rather than investing in motivational strategies to counter it. Yet, further studies are necessary to better understand this phenomenon among college students.</p> <p><br><strong>Keywords</strong>: motivation, autonomy, career indecision, vocational indecision, young adults, educational and vocational activities, psychological needs</p> Johannie Boulet Frédéric Guay Richard Bradet Copyright (c) 2020 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 43 3 659 688 Understanding Roles and Relationships: Teachers’ Work in a Northern Ontario Remote First Nations Community https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/4085 <p>This article explores how teachers negotiate their roles and relationships in a Northern Ontario First Nations community. Through a case study approach, utilizing interviews and focus groups with 15 participants, I constructed four categories: (1) pedestal people, (2) educational transitioners, (3) relationship builders, and (4) community integrators, for the purpose of explaining the ways in which teachers navigate their roles and relationships in the community and the implications for their work as teachers. I argue that community integrators embody an understanding of Indigenous approaches, centralized in relational knowing and being, and model a practice most efficacious for Indigenous student success. </p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Indigenous education, relationships, teachers’ work</p> Dawn Burleigh Copyright (c) 2020 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 43 3 689 714 L’ambiguïté autour du numérique : une problématique associée à l’usage https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/4225 <p>Scientific knowledge, to be valid, must be produced according to certain rigorous procedures which common sense is not required (Van Campenhoudt et al., 2017). From this perspective, this article aims to offer an epistemological reflection on a common sense term sometimes used imprecisely, specifically the french term “le numérique”. The objective of this article is to carry out a documentary analysis to establish a conceptualization of that term on a scientific level. The results obtained by a thematic analysis of scientific articles and theoretical works show the relevance for researchers of moving away from the terms used by the actors to describe their activity. This allows us to offer a conceptualization of « le numérique » as a technical object that is socially constructed and oriented by uses. The analysis shows that the ways the people use technologies are influenced by social inequalities. To conclude, we show the implications of this work of intelligibility for the development of a digital competence.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: digital, digital uses, digital inequalities, technology, digital competency</p> Charles Bourgeois Jean Gabin Ntebutse Copyright (c) 2020 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 43 3 715 739 What Helped Me Innovate: Identified Motivation Factors from Canadian Innovators’ Education Experiences https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/4193 <p>Past innovation research has focused on business contexts and prodigy, leaving the insights of today’s successful innovators in a range of fields overlooked in their utility to inform the education of our next generation of innovators. This mixed method study combined surveys (n = 500) and interviews (n = 30) of Canadian innovators to identify motivation factors that could be leveraged in formal and informal education to make innovation more likely in Canada. The findings point to methods of maximizing expectancies and values, while proactively mitigating the costs of innovating. Recommendations are made for teachers, mentors, and decision makers for better stoking the capacity to innovate through education. <br><strong>Keywords</strong>: innovation, innovators, maximizing innovative capacity</p> Eleftherios Soleas Ben Bolden Copyright (c) 2020 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 43 3 740 769 Élaboration et expérimentation d’un modèle intégrateur en accompagnement professionnel dans le cadre d’une recherche-action-formation https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/4299 <p>This research experiments an innovative integrative model of professional support in collaboration with two health and physical education teachers. The objectives of this article are to describe: 1) the modifications made to the model by the participants and 2) the strengths and the elements to improve this process. To meet these objectives, two methods of data collection were used in a collaborative action research: 1) group interviews and 2) logbooks. The main finding is that this professional development device has several strengths, but requires a significant commitment from the participants.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: professional support, professional development, collaborative action research, health education, health and physical education</p> David Bezeau Sylvain Turcotte Sylvie Beaudoin Johanne Grenier Copyright (c) 2020 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 43 3 770 802 The Enactment of Applied English: Does Caring Lead to Teaching to the Test? https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/4201 <p>Many school systems require students to pass one or more standardized examinations to graduate. This case study of three lower academic stream English classes in a single Ontario secondary school explored how the presence of a high-stakes standardized examination affected the enactment of the curriculum. Qualitative data were collected through a combination of teacher interviews, classroom observations, and teaching/learning artifacts. The findings of the inductive analysis suggest that the four teachers in the study cared deeply about the emotional well-being and scholastic success of their students; however, this caring sometimes manifested itself in less than ideal teaching practices, such as the use of external rewards, removal of student responsibility for learning, and teaching to the test. Seven strands are identified, each describing how caring is manifested within this teaching/learning context. Three vignettes describe actual classroom events which epitomise how caring was demonstrated by these teachers towards their students. While positioning teaching to the test as an act of caring is unusual, the evidence from this study suggests teachers do it because they believe it will benefit students’ well-being and future outcomes. These findings suggest that for any high-stakes test, caring teachers may teach to the test and narrow the curriculum.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: English curriculum, standardized testing, caring, washback, motivation, learning skills</p> Stefan Denis Merchant Jessica Rich Don Klinger Rebecca Luce-Kapler Copyright (c) 2020 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 43 3 803 828 La problématisation d’élèves du primaire impliqués dans une démarche d’apprentissage par problème dans une perspective d’enseignement des controverses https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/4391 <p>Society faces major changes. Schools have to allow students to develop the competencies necessary to be active citizens (Albe, 2009). Dewey (1910/2004; 1916/1990) emphasizes the benefits of problem-based learning (PBL) where students need to become familiar with social issues. This study aims to document the PBL process based on a controversial issue of elementary school students to understand how they reflect. In a case study approach, students group discussions were analyzed to identify the phase of the reflective thinking (Dewey, 1910/2004) in their inquiry process. We observe that, following an iterative process, students’ reflective thinking becomes more complex.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: problem-based learning, inquiry learning, controversial issue, elementary education</p> Justine Dion-Routhier Christine Hamel Copyright (c) 2020 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 43 3 829 861 “There’s only one pot of money it can come from”: A Corpus-Based Analysis of the International Baccalaureate in Canada’s Provinces https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/4323 <p>This study has a dual purpose: (1) to show how computer-assisted discourse analysis of a 1.5-million-word specialized corpus can uncover patterns of language use that provide insights into the beliefs and values of a particular social group, making possible a “new way of looking at old puzzles” (Stubbs, 2010); and (2) to examine how the International Baccalaureate (IB) is represented in the Canadian provincial context. Although keywords reveal lexical differences in how the IB is represented in each province, in-depth contextual analysis indicates a similarity of concerns, particularly with regard to funding and cost of IB programs. </p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: International Baccalaureate, corpus linguistics, discourse analysis, keyword analysis, education funding, policy, media</p> Saira Fitzgerald Copyright (c) 2020 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 43 3 862 890 Review: The How and Wow of Teaching https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/4839 Kevin J. MacLeod Copyright (c) 2020 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 43 3 i iv Review: Early Years Education and Care in Canada – A Historical and Philosophical Overview https://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/4841 Natasha Mansur Copyright (c) 2020 Canadian Society for the Study of Education 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 43 3 v viii