Glass Ceiling Effect in Lithuanian Private Sector, What Holds Women Back from Moving to the Top Positions.
Keywords:gender inequality, mid-level management, glass ceiling, women leadership, promotion opportunities
The study explores the relationship between glass ceiling perceptions, promotion, and leadership opportunities for the workplace middle-management position in Lithuania. For this study, data was collected using an online questionnaire distributed using the “LinkedIn” social network. Of the total number of participants 725, 521 were females (72 percent), and 204 were male (28 percent). Of the 725 participants, 379 (52 percent) agreed or somewhat agreed that there is gender inequality in the workplace in Lithuania. While the results suggest the perception of a glass ceiling still exists in Lithuania, the results were not extremely explicit as many of the responses fell between the “somewhat agree” and “neutral” range. The European Institute for Gender Equality states that Lithuania would receive a high impact from gender equality it could lead to a 12 percent increase of GDP by 2050, creating additional job places for women. (EIGE, 2019). To test the economic influence for the Lithuanian economy in the face of glass ceiling, almost 300 out of 725 (41 percent) participants agreed that they would not remain in their job if the amount of gender inequality increased, even choosing that it would lead to their choice leaving their job or in extreme cases Lithuania. There has been no significant difference between male and female perceptions about leadership and promotion. Both genders value the most flexible work schedule and balance between work and their personal life, as well as recognition for achievements that they bring to the company.
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