Glass Ceiling Effect in Lithuanian Private Sector, What Holds Women Back from Moving to the Top Positions.


  • Beatričė Ozgirdaitė LCC International University
  • Scott Stewart LCC International University
  • Donna Fallon LCC International University


gender inequality, mid-level management, glass ceiling, women leadership, promotion opportunities


The study explores the relationship between glass ceiling perceptions, promotion, and leadership opportunities for the workplace middle-management position in Lithuania. For this study, data was collected using an online questionnaire distributed using the “LinkedIn” social network. Of the total number of participants 725, 521 were females (72 percent), and 204 were male (28 percent). Of the 725 participants, 379 (52 percent) agreed or somewhat agreed that there is gender inequality in the workplace in Lithuania. While the results suggest the perception of a glass ceiling still exists in Lithuania, the results were not extremely explicit as many of the responses fell between the “somewhat agree” and “neutral” range. The European Institute for Gender Equality states that Lithuania would receive a high impact from gender equality it could lead to a 12 percent increase of GDP by 2050, creating additional job places for women. (EIGE, 2019). To test the economic influence for the Lithuanian economy in the face of glass ceiling, almost 300 out of 725 (41 percent) participants agreed that they would not remain in their job if the amount of gender inequality increased, even choosing that it would lead to their choice leaving their job or in extreme cases Lithuania. There has been no significant difference between male and female perceptions about leadership and promotion. Both genders value the most flexible work schedule and balance between work and their personal life, as well as recognition for achievements that they bring to the company.


Beaudin. L. (2018) Examining the relationship between academic performance and workplace position: does the glass ceiling exist among graduates from the same university?, Applied Economics Letters, 26:4, 286-289, DOI: 10.1080/13504851.2018.1467546

EIGE. (2019). Economic Benefits of Gender Equalityin the European Union. Retrieved from: affairs/economic-benefits-gender-equality

Einarsdottir, U. D., Christiansen, T. H., & Kristjansdottir, E. S. (2018). “It’sa Man Who Runs the Show”: How Women Middle-Managers Experience Their Professional Position, Opportunities, and Barriers. Sage Open, 8(1), 2158244017753989.

Eurostat. (2017). Tertiary education statistics. Retrieved from:

Ezzedeen, S. R., Budworth, M. H., & Baker, S. D. (2015). The glass ceiling and executive careers: Still an issue for pre-career women. Journal of Career Development, 42(5), 355-369.

Juškauskaitė. V. (2017). Specialistai: „stiklo lubos“ suduš dar negreit. Retrieved from:

Kleven, H., Landais, C., & Søgaard, J. E. (2019). Children and gender inequality: Evidence from Denmark. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 11(4), 181-209.

Lithuania Statistics department. (2020). Lietuvos statistikos departamentas. Retrieved from:

McKinsey & Company. (2019). Women in the Workplace. Retrieved from: https://wiw-

Moè, A. (2009). Are males always better than females in mental rotation? Exploring a gender belief explanation. Learning and Individual Differences, 19(1), 21-27.

Nordic Council of Ministers (2018). Is the last mile the longest? Retrieved from:

Office of Equal Opportunities Ombudsperson (2019). Retrieved from: paskatinti-smurta

Poushter. J., Fetterolf, (2019). How people around the world view gender equality in their countries. Retrieved from:

Skardžiūvienė. A. (2019). Visuomenės apklausa: iškreipti lūkesčiai moterims gali paskatinti smurtą. Retrieved from:

Soergel. A. (2020). Minding the Nordic inequality gap. Retrieved from:

World Economic Forum (2020). The Global Gender Gap Report. Retrieved from:






ABR Journal Articles