Exploring the Interaction Effects Between Human Resource Systems and Resource Orchestration on Firm Outcomes


  • Daniel Peat University of Cincinnati
  • Jaclyn Perrmann-Graham Northern Kentucky University


Human Resource Systems, Strategic Management, Resource Orchestration, Human Capital, Firm Performance, Human Resource Management


Firms that leverage the interaction of HR systems with resource orchestration are better able to respond to increasing globalization and the inherent complexities and dynamism of operating in these environments. In this paper, we theorize how firms leverage this interaction to influence organizational level outcomes, specifically firm financial performance and organizational learning. In doing so, we both examine how human capital is viewed and answer calls within the literature on how resources are combined to influence firm outcomes. Our work follows Sirmon et al. (2007) framework and spans departmental boundaries making it both relevant and practical to all business disciplines and fields.

Author Biographies

Daniel Peat, University of Cincinnati

Mr. Peat is a doctoral candidate in the Lindner College of Business at the University of Cincinnati and an instuctor in the Department of Management in the Farmer School of Business at Miami University. Prior to his position at Miami University, Mr. Peat was an Instructor in Management at University of Cincinnati.

Jaclyn Perrmann-Graham, Northern Kentucky University

Dr. Jaclyn Perrmann-Graham is an Assistant Professor of Management in the Haile/US Bank College of Business and Northern Kentucky University.


Allen, D. G., Mahto, R. V., & Otondo, R. F. (2007). Web-based recruitment: Effects of information, organizational brand, and attitudes toward a web site on applicant attraction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(6): 1696–1708.

Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Weber, T. J. (2009). Leadership: current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60(1): 421–449.

Baird, L., & Meshoulam, I. (1988). Managing two fits of strategic human resource management. Academy of Management Review, 13(1), 116-128.

Barney, J. B. 1991. Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1): 99–120.

Barney, J. B., & Wright, P. M. (1998). On becoming a strategic partner: The role of human resources in gaining competitive advantage. Human Resource Management: Published in Cooperation with the School of Business Administration, The University of Michigan and in alliance with the Society of Human Resources Management, 37(1), 31-46.

Batt, R. (2002). Managing customer services: Human resource practices, quit rates, and sales growth. Academy of Management Journal, 45(3), 587-597.

Bidwell, M., & Keller, J. R. (2014). Within or without? How firms combine internal and external labor markets to fill jobs. Academy of Management Journal, 57(4): 1035–1055.

Boon, C., Eckardt, R., Lepak, D. P., & Boselie, P. (2018). Integrating strategic human capital and strategic human resource management. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 29(1): 34–67.

Bowen, D. E., & Ostroff, C. (2004). Understanding HRM-Firm Performance Linkages: the role of the “strength” of the HRM System. Academy of Management Review, 29(2): 203–221.

Brown, M. G. (2008). Proximity and collaboration: measuring workplace configuration. Journal of Corporate Real Estate, 10(1): 5–26.

Brymer, R. A., Molloy, J. C., & Chadwick, C. (2015). Strategic Human Capital. Oxford Bibliographies.

Brymer, R. A., Molloy, J. C., & Gilbert, B. A. (2014). Human capital pipelines: Competitive implications of repeated interorganizational hiring. Journal of Management, 40(2): 483–508.

Casey, M., & Hackett, R. (2014). The 10 biggest R&D spenders worldwide. Fortune. Retrieved from http://fortune.com/2014/11/17/top-10-research-development/

Chadwick, C. (2017). Toward a more comprehensive model of firms’ human capital rents. Academy of Management Review, 42(3), 499-519.

Chadwick, C., & Flinchbaugh, C. (2020). Searching for competitive advantage in the HRM/firm performance relationship. Academy of Management Perspectives, (ja).

Chadwick, C., Guthrie, J. P., & Xing, X. (2016). The HR executive effect on firm performance and survival. Strategic Management Journal, 1–20.

Chadwick, C., Super, J. F., & Kwon, K. (2015). Resource orchestration in practice: CEO emphasis on SHRM, commitment‐based HR systems, and firm performance. Strategic Management Journal, 36(3), 360-376.

Chadwick, C., Way, S. A., Kerr, G., & Thacker, J. W. (2013). Boundary conditions of the high-investment human resource systems-small-firm labor productivity relationship. Personnel Psychology, 66(2): 311–343.

Chou, S. Y., Chang, Y. H., & Shen, C. Y. (2008). A fuzzy simple additive weighting system under group decision-making for facility location selection with objective/subjective attributes. European Journal of Operational Research, 189(1): 132–145.

Colbert, B. A. (2004). The complex resource-based view: Implications for theory and practice in strategic human resource management. Academy of Management Review, 29(3), 341-358.

Conner, K. R., & Prahalad, C. K. (1996). A resource-based theory of the firm: Knowledge versus opportunism. Organization science, 7(5), 477-501.

Datta, D. K., Guthrie, J. P., & Wright, P. M. (2005). Human resource management and labor productivity: Does industry matter? Academy of Management Journal, 48(1): 135–145.

Delery, J. E., & Doty, D. (1996). Modes of theorizing in strategic human resource management: test of universalistic, contingency and configurational performance predictions. Academy of Management Journal, 39(4): 802–835.

Denrell, J., Fang, C., & Winter, S. G. (2003). The economics of strategic opportunity. Strategic Management Journal, 24(10), 977-990.

Dierickx, I., & Cool, K. (1989). Asset stock accumulation and sustainability of competitive advantage. Management science, 35(12), 1504-1511.

Dunton, N., Gajewski, B., Klaus, S., & Pierson, B. (2007). The relationship of nursing workforce characteristics to patient outcomes. Online J Issues Nurs, 12(3).

Fulmer, I. S., & Ployhart, R. E. (2013). “Our Most Important Asset”: A multidisciplinary/multilevel review of human capital valuation for research and practice. Journal of Management (Vol. 40).

Galindo-Rueda, F., & Haskel, J. (2005). Skills, workforce characteristics and firm-level productivity: Evidence from the matched ABI/employer skills survey.

Graf, M., & Mudambi, S. M. (2005). The outsourcing of IT-enabled business processes: A conceptual model of the location decision. Journal of International management, 11(2), 253-268.

Guest, D. E. (2011). Human resource management and performance: Still searching for some answers.Human resource management journal 21.1: 3-13.

Guest, D., & Conway, N. (2011). The impact of HR practices, HR effectiveness and a “strong HR system” on organisational outcomes: A stakeholder perspective. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(8): 1686–1702.

Guthrie, J. P. (2001). High-involvement work practices, turnover, and productivity: Evidence from New Zealand. Academy of Management Journal, 44(1): 180–190.

Hansen, M. H., Perry, L. T., & Reese, C. S. (2004). A Bayesian operationalization of the resource‐based view. Strategic Management Journal, 25(13), 1279-1295.

Helfat, C. E., Finkelstein, S., Mitchell, W., Peteraf, M. A., Singh, H., Teece, D. J., & Winter, S. G. (2007). Dynamic capabilities: Understanding strategic change in organizations. Carlton: Blackwell.

Hess, E., & Modica, S. (2009). Mcdonald's Corporation.

Hitt, M. A., Bierman, L., Uhlenbruck, K., & Shimizu, K. (2006). The importance of resources in the internationalization of professional service firms: The good, the bad, and the ugly. Academy of management journal, 49(6), 1137-1157.

Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D., & Lee, H. U. (2000). Technological learning, knowledge management, firm growth and performance: An introductory essay. Journal of Engineering and Technology management, 17(3-4), 231-246.

Huselid, M. A. (1995). The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance. Academy of Management Journal, 38(3): 635–672.

Huselid, M. A., Jackson, S. E., & Schuler, R. S. (1997). Technical and strategic human resources management effeciveness as determinants of firm performance. Academy of Management Journal, 40(1): 171–188.

Jacobsen, J. (2011). Ford team uses six sigma to reduce costs while improving environmental impact. American Society for Quality, (December): 3–6.

Jiang, K., Lepak, D., Jia, J. U., & Baer, J. C. (2012a). How does human resource management influence organizational outcomes? A meta-analytic investigation of mediating mechanisms. Academy of Management Journal, 55(6): 1264–1294.

Jiang, K., Lepak, D. P., Han, K., Hong, Y., Kim, A., & Winkler, A. L. (2012b). Clarifying the construct of human resource systems: Relating human resource management to employee performance. Human Resource Management Review, 22(2): 73–85.

Kim, B. Y. (2006). Managing workforce diversity: Developing a learning organization. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 5(2), 69-90.

Kimberly, B. (2013). Landscape one are the days of evaluating real. Site Selection Magazine.

Kocoglu, I., Imamoglu, S. Z., & İnce, H. (2011). The relationship between organizational learning and firm performance: The mediating roles of innovation and TQM. Journal of Global Strategic Management, 9(3), 72-88.

Kor, Y. Y., & Leblebici, H. (2005). How do interdependencies among human‐capital deployment, development, and diversification strategies affect firms' financial performance? Strategic Management Journal, 26(10), 967-985.

Kotha, S., & Vadlamani, B. L. (1995). Assessing generic strategies: an empirical investigation of two competing typologies in research notes and communications assessing generic strategies: An empirical investigation of two competing typologies in discrete manufacturing industries. Strategic Management Journal, 16(16): 75–83.

Leonardi, P. M., & Vaast, E. (2017). Social media and their affordances for organizing: A review and agenda for research. Academy of Management Annals, 11(1), 150-188.

Lepak, D. P., & Snell, S. A. (1999). The human resource architecture: Toward a theory of human capital allocation and development. Academy of Management Review, 24(1): 31–48.

Li, X., Frenkel, S. J., & Sanders, K. (2011). Strategic HRM as process: How HR system and organizational climate strength influence Chinese employee attitudes. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(9): 1825–1842.

Mackey, A., Molloy, J. C., & Morris, S. S. (2014). Scarce human capital in managerial labor markets. Journal of Management, 40(2), 399-421.

Messersmith, J. G., Patel, P. C., Lepak, D. P., & Gould-Williams, J. S. (2011). Unlocking the black box: Exploring the link between high-performance work systems and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(6): 1105–1118.

Miller, D., & Shamsie, J. (1996). The resource-based view of the firm in two environments: The Hollywood film studios from 1936 to 1965. Academy of Management Journal, 39(3): 519–543.

Molloy, J. C., Ployhart, R. E., & Wright, P. M. (2011). The myth of “the” micro-macro divide: Bridging system-level and disciplinary divides. (H. Aguinis, B. K. Boyd, C. A. Pierce, & J. C. Short, Eds.)Journal of Management, 37(2): 581–609.

Monks, K., & Loughnane, M. (2006). Unwrapping the HRM bundle: HR system design in an Irish power utility. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17(11): 1926–1941.

Namada, J. M. (2017). Organizational learning and firm performance: An empirical investigation in an emerging economy context.

Nelson, R. L. 1958. The Selection of Retail Location. FW Dodge Corporation.

Peat, D. M., & Perrmann, J. (2019). Rucksack to backpack: Psychological contracts between veterans and “military friendly” campuses. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2019, No. 1, p. 19062). Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management.

Pil, F. K., & MacDuffie, J. P. (1996). The adoption of high-involvement work practices. (C. Ichniowski, D. I. Levine, C. Olson, & G. Strauss, Eds.)Industrial Relations, 35(3): 423–455.

Ployhart, R. E., Nyberg, A. J., Reilly, G., & Maltarich, M. A. (2014). Human capital is dead; Long live human capital resources! Journal of Management, 40(2): 371–398.

Priem, R. L., & Butler, J. E. (2001). Is the resource-based “view” a useful perspective for strategic management research? The Academy of Management Review, 26(1): 22.

Pullman, M. E., Maloni, M. J., & Carter, C. R. (2009). Food for thought: Social versus environmental sustainability practices and performance outcomes. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 45(4), 38-54.

Schmidt, J., & Keil, T. (2013). What makes a resource valuable? Identifying the drivers of firm-idiosyncratic resource value. Academy of Management Review, 38(2), 206-228.

Searer, S. (2013). Office Snapshots tours Zappos HQ. Retrieved from https://officesnapshots.com/2013/12/16/new-zappos-downtown-las-vegas-headquarters/

Sinha, R. K., & Noble, C. H. (2008). The adoption of radical manufacturing technologies and firm survival. Strategic Management Journal, 29(9): 943–962.

Sirmon, D. G., Gove, S., & Hitt, M. A. (2008). Resource management in dyadic competitive rivalry: The effects of resource bundling and deployment. Academy of Management Journal, 51(5): 919–935.

Sirmon, D. G., Hitt, M. A., & Ireland, R. D. (2007). Managing firm resources in dynamic environments to create value: Looking inside the black box. Academy of Management Review, 32(1): 273–292.

Sirmon, D. G., Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D., & Gilbert, B. A. (2011). Resource orchestration to create competitive advantage: Breadth, depth, and life cycle effects. Journal of Management, 37(5): 1390–1412.

Snell, S. A., & Dean, J. W. (1992). Integrated manufacturing and human resource management: A human capital perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 35(3): 467–504.

Snell, S. A., Youndt, M. A., & Wright, P. M. (1996). Establishing a framework for research in strategic human resource management: Merging resource theory and organizational learning. Research in personnel and human resources management (pp. 61–90).

Teece, D. J., Pisano, G., & Shuen, A. (1997). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic management journal, 18(7), 509-533.

Thomas, M. (2015). Strategic principles at Southwest Airlines. Strategic Direction, 31(8): 10–12.

Turner, M. (2017). Amazon is most likely to build its second headquarters in one of these five cities. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/marciaturner/2017/10/19/amazon-is-most-likely-to-build-its-second-headquarters-in-1-of-these-5-cities/#7305c07e6168

Wright, P. M., Coff, R., & Moliterno, T. P. (2014). Strategic human capital: Crossing the great divide. Journal of Management, 40(2): 353–370.

Wright, P. M., Dunford, B. B., & Snell, S. A. (2001). Human resources and the resource based view of the firm. Journal of Management, 27(6): 701–721.

Wright, P. M., & McMahan, G. C. (1992). Theoretical perspectives for strategic human resource management. Journal of Management, 18(2): 295–320.

Wright, P. M., McMahan, G. C., & McWillams, A. (1994). Human resources and sustained competitive advantage: A resource-based perspective. Internationa! Journal of Human Resource Management, 5(2): 301–326.

Zentes, J., Morschett, D., & Schramm-Klein, H. (2011). Retail branding and positioning. Strategic Retail Management (pp. 179–200). Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag.






ABR Journal Articles